Skip to main content

tv   Unrest and Reform in the Gilded Age  CSPAN  May 7, 2016 8:00pm-9:01pm EDT

8:00 pm
the return to nature movement. his classes about 50 minutes long. ♪ >> welcome back everybody. as you know we have been in the gilded age for some no time now. we've already seen the technological innovations that made this economic expansion possible. we saw the economic transformations and the effect of those changes on the economy as far as lifestyles both for robbery ritzy opulent
8:01 pm
baron lifestyles and also the very poor. whether it was the people living in the shacks of the new england mill towns or whether it was the increasing problems of housing in the sanitation that came with this rapid and in many ways chaotic growth of the cities in the late 19th century. all of it accompanied by problems going along with immigration. we saw in particular there was some frustration with this new gilded age regime. as we talked about the farmers in this. . that could have been called discontent in the gilded age part one. today we turn our attention mostly back towards industry and in some ways back toward the city as well.
8:02 pm
i want to look at different types of frustrations with this new order in america. song eightwith the hours which was a popular labor anthem in the 1880's. you're the chorus eight hours for work eight hours for rest eight hours for what we well. in some ways that song speaks what we will be talking about today. eight hours for work and eight hours for rest. we are talking about labor relations. we're talking about more broadly speaking clinical economy. we are talking about the potential for state regulations and these arguments over that. that is somewhat straightforward. what about eight hours for what we will. they say we want to feel the sunshine. we are not machines, we're human beings. we want to have a life outside of work. even those on the top of this new gilded age are also in many
8:03 pm
ways growing anxious over this new world that is coming about. we look at economics. else, a lot of our story starts with the railroads. much theseen how transcontinental railroad trains to the west. -- changed the west. it didn't stop in 1869 when they drove the golden spike. they continue to build by the end of the century. there were four transcontinental railroads by the end of the century. there were all kinds of tributary lines to connect to different parts of the west to those main corridors. it seemed like a really good investment. the lion's share of the stocks on the new york stock exchange were not industrial stocks, they were railroad stocks.
8:04 pm
a lot of people scramble to get in on the ground floor. one of those projects was the northern pacific railroad. won the right to be the chief fundraiser for that project was jacob. a very well respected financier. ofd been a major financier the union effort during the civil war. problem was this. investors were starting to thatze in the 1870's perhaps in our zeal for railroad building we had gone too far. maybe we are overbuilt. maybe the railroad bubble is about to first. all of a sudden jay cooke had trouble raising money. he had trouble getting a loan. people found that he was overextended. on september 18, 1873 he and his company declared bankruptcy. when cook went under a drag down under businesses and banks with
8:05 pm
him. a panic hit wall street. beginning september 20 the new york stock exchange which was heavily populated by railroad stocks closed for 10 days and over the next two months 55 railroads went bankrupt. it didn't stop there. the 1874 25% of the nation's railroad's bonds were in default. it wasn't just railroads that were affected. over the following two years they were over 18,000 businesses that failed. many people including this cartoonist clung to the traditional view that ultimately this was a necessary evil. failure is part of the capitalist system and so we should see the panic as the cartoonist does as a sanitation officer cleaning all of the trash out of wall street.
8:06 pm
aybe so but in the meantime lot of people have to suffer. in the meantime railroad construction ground to a halt. unemployment skyrocketed in many sectors and in some cities unemployment was as high as 25%. foressness remained rife the next five years. at the same moment. people were starting to ask questions about whether or not the railroads should have so much power. within this new national economy. we saw the farmers asking these questions very loudly. here we see railroad tycoon william henry vanderbilt pictured as the modern colossus of railroads. along with some of his colleagues cyrus field in the notorious jay gould.
8:07 pm
farmers considered their great control over the economy to be extortion. other groups were starting to feel this way as well. the political efforts of frustrated farmers and some allied industrialists led to early attempts at state intervention. 1870's some states passed what we call the granger laws. maximum freight elevator rates. for bidding rate discrimination against shortfalls. any urban consumers felt that the railroads were overcharging them. it was not just farmers who were frustrated. they created state railroad commissions to supervise and enforce this new regulatory regime. this happened in places like mile -- minnesota and iowa and illinois. it was there that the law was
8:08 pm
challenged by the firm of monday and scott. -- accused ofsed having overcharged customers of the grain elevator in chicago. they challenge to the $100 fine and it went to the supreme court and 1877 by a seven-to majority the court under chief justice said that when private property was devoted to a public use is subject to public reggie -- regulation. the doors open for the states to step in. don't consider this a long-term win for state regulation. 1886 a 6-3 majority at the declared that under the commerce clause of the constitution states were forbidden to impose direct
8:09 pm
burdens on interstate commerce. regulatory regime was considered a direct burden on a railroad which was considered interstate commerce and therefore state-level regulation was severely hampered moving forward after the wabash case. this along with a couple of other cases in the late 1880's extended the 14th amendment protections to corporations. it acted to undermine the state regulation. that doesn't mean the public stopped being frustrated with the abuses of the railroads. public outrage over the wabash to the passage of the interstate commerce act by congress in 1887. it created the interstate maderce commission and it its forbidden to have special rates for powerful shippers.
8:10 pm
you remember rockefellers scheme from a few weeks ago. there would be no rate discrimination against shortfalls. public inspection of rates. regulations,the you could face up to a $5,000 fine. take that, vanderbilt. they work through. growing public frustration over the strength of led congress to pass of 1890.an act states haveral passed antitrust laws and now congress was joining the parade. the sherman act is important for us moving forward because it outlawed every contract and combination or conspiracy in restraint of trade again imposing a $5,000 fine.
8:11 pm
year inlly also a prison. i don't want you to be misled. hardly represents the foundation of a robust regulatory regime. president of, the the gilded age were generally uncomfortable with this stored at state intervention. they held to a more traditional laissez-faire view. benjamin harrison sign to the law because it was in accord with public opinion but he didn't do too much to enforce it. the same could be said for his successors whether a democrat like grover cleveland over republican like william mckinley. in moments when the federal government did try to enforce it, they were smacked down by the courts. course defanged the sherman act when it came to industrial combinations.
8:12 pm
the court declared 8-1 50 sherman act did not apply to manufacturing monopolies. the company controlled more than 90% of the sector. certainly this is consolidation. they say production is not interstate commerce. that is something different. they have narrowly defined the powers given to enforcement under the sherman act. it would be until the 20th century that the sherman act was used successfully against industrial monopolies, something we will talk about in a later lecture. it wasn't only the government and public opinion also workers who were growing frustrated with the demands of gilded age businessmen. like the public and the
8:13 pm
legislature, labor would be largely frustrated and its protests. the hard times of the agency of less availability of work and less stability and at times harsh measures by management to try to keep their companies afloat. railroads in particular had tried to respond to the crises cutting theirby own rates in trying to outdo their competitors. how do they make up for the losses of these rates? they cut the workers wages. that led to a decade of mounting frustration by the workers. there were a series of strikes in 1876 and 1877. cuts, and thewage
8:14 pm
public opprobrium it was often heaped on the workers as they it wasp for themselves, seen that railroads were a good and so if you strike against the railroad you are doing something especially evil. the workers began to resent all of this. exploded in the summer of 1877. a new group struck against the baltimore and ohio railroad beginning in july 18 77. baltimore police broke up the first round of strikers. then they took control of the key railroad junction in martinsburg west virginia. a battle between police and the mob required intervention by the militia. and eventually federal troops had to restore order. these kinds of schemes were wrapping around the country. tried to trap mob
8:15 pm
the militia in an armory. the militia fired and killed 10 people. in pittsburgh rioters burned railroads and destroyed the depot. exchanging fire with troops. strikers in indianapolis seized control of the depot and halted all cars and trains except for ones carrying mail. 25th all the lines outside new england in the south are being affected one way or the other. you could feel the tension on streets around the country. --chicago businessmen can patrolled the streets cheering a potential revolution. in buffalo the revolution was underway. crowds swarmed the yard of the new york central. this great railroad strike of 77 collapsed.
8:16 pm
first of all the depression was still going on and was easy to find desperate people to work as strikebreakers. unemployment was still around 8%. some companies were fearful of continued strikes and continued chaos and were willing to negotiate. ultimately we can't call it a win for labor. if anything the press became increasingly indignant over this outburst of street action and they called on the states to beef up their militias to put down future agitation. state-level militia units were enhanced and armories were constructed to prepare for the next events. meanwhile, conflagrations like 1870's causedate
8:17 pm
many workers to ask a fundamental question. wouldn't this be more easily accomplished if we had some better organization? of them turned to a fledgling organization the knights of labor. it started as a kind of secret society. he was obsessed with all sorts of rituals and secret posts. workers becamey interested in organization and they looked to the knights. this was often spontaneous. they were never particularly effective recruiters. people were looking for organization so in 1879 they had by 1882 they had 14,000. they were taken over by new leadership. he moved to the group away from
8:18 pm
ritual and toward reform. stressing monetary reform as we discussed last time. they began discussing an eight hour day. organizing for cooperatives among the workers. trying to gain state and local political influence. many within the knights of labor again embracing the ideas of henry george who called for a single tax on land. is theirnteresting broad membership. this group was anomalous especially within labor. they were highly inclusive. they reached across lines of craft, scale, it was skilled and unskilled workers. immigrants and nativeborn workers.
8:19 pm
catholics and protestants in this organization. black members as well as white members. men.le members as well as i a very large and inclusive organization and they were building a lot of momentum in the 1880's. they will have a precipitous climb -- decline however. a totally different ideal in labor will come to the four. that is craft unionism. american federation of labor, founded in 1886. their leader is samuel coppers. his papers are held in our library. they were inclusive. they were focused on elite craftsman. this is strategic. ae skilled craftsman have
8:20 pm
little bit more leverage when it comes to negotiation. unskilled craftsman are replaceable but skilled workers are a little more valuable. they had much narrower goals. the phrase the gompers spoke of was pure and simple unionism. we are going to get a better wage and shorter hours. were not trying to change the world. this more conservative elite unionism. they could survive the chaos we're going to talk about now. meantime, the 1880's would see recapitulation's of many of the troubling themes of the 1870's. a major economic panic, this one in 1884. followed by an industrial downturn and labor troubles. the great upheaval.
8:21 pm
a sporadic series of events. as successful strike by unorganized railroad workers against the union pacific railroad. the railroad capitulated within two days. workers said now that we are on a roll let's join the knights of labor. let's make this a permanent fixture. 1884 we saw the beginning of a major mind -- mine strike. 4000 workers went out on strike and it lasted six months. what noteworthy is that once again taught them the usefulness coordination. if you go on strike you don't get paid. the strike doesn't last very long because you have to eat. they were able to organize a
8:22 pm
strike fund. it enabled them to keep this fight up for six months. of organization. then came a major strike against the missouri pacific railroad. they were trying to have a pay cut. most of that network was owned andur friends jay gould others. the governors of nebraska and kansas intervened on behalf of the workers which tells us more about jay gould that it does about the governors. jay gould gave back the pay cut. once again workers saw value in the organization. this led to growth for the knights of labor. they had 700,000 members.
8:23 pm
this would be their high water mark. the first of several very famous the very telling episodes within american labor relations. an explosion in the gilded age. that is the haymarket affair. there was a strike at the on may 3, 1886. they were calling for an 18 hour -- eight hour day. at least two workers were killed by police. there were anarchists in chicago. violence to us is a wonderful example of our broader critique of american want to taked we advantage of this moment to use this tragedy in order to demonstrate to people the
8:24 pm
validity of our arguments. so they called for protests. the getting may 4. protests were well attended by the working classes especially german immigrants. there was a large turnout. it was peaceful by all accounts. the rhetoric was relatively tame. according to the relatively tame mayor of chicago, carter a lot of people were deciding that things were ok and it was time to go home. but it wasn't. rally,ppened next at the someone through a pipe bomb. a policeman was killed. the policeman began to fire. shootout ensued. six police and four protesters were killed in the crossfire.
8:25 pm
we never figured out who through the pipe bomb. we knew who to blame. the anarchists. these germans, these radicals. four of them were executed. others received long prison sentences. one committed suicide. 1890's john peter altgeld the new governor of illinois and himself german born part in three surviving anarchists. basically saying the whole thing has been a travesty of justice. we still don't know who through the pipe bomb. we know wasn't them. radicalismng fear of led to increasing anti-labor sentiment nationwide.
8:26 pm
1892 was a. with many major incidents. in new orleans there was a general strike that went on and on. 25,000 workers. dozens of different organizations. lack workers and white workers in new orleans. major incidents in the coal mining fields of eastern illinois. the coal creek wars. tennessee miners protested against the use of convict labor is being used to undermine their wages. they protested by arming themselves and burning down the stockade where the convicts were being held. releasing a lot of the prisoners. the militia came in.
8:27 pm
homestead pennsylvania. and andrew carnegie's steelworks. they are trying to organize and to join a national group known as the amalgamated iron and steel workers. at one point in his career andrew carnegie had favored the principle of collective bargaining but it was hitting a little too close to home now. and so he changed his mind. a greatot become innovator and billionaire but being a fool. he prudently decided this battle was not for him. crew --it to henley henry clay frick. that he would not negotiate with his union. he fortified the steel plant.
8:28 pm
thethis was not the end of story. the workers armed themselves, captured the plant, argued themselves inside. had another move to make. he hired a notorious group known as the pinkerton guards. they are politely referred to as a detective agency but they were really mercenaries. they came lumbering up the monongahela river on their barges. it didn't quite work out. when they arrived a brawl ensued. nine workers and one guard were killed. the people of homestead were on the side of the workers. these are our families, our customers, our neighbors. chased them out of town. they couldn't sleep by their barges because they burn to the
8:29 pm
barges. affair, local law enforcement had ultimately been effective in stopping the radicals. this could be the case this time because the mayor, the sheriff, they are on the side of the workers. opinion by and large was on the side of the workers. that is not the end of the story. anarchistntime, an named alexander berkman brewed into frick's office and shot him twice and repeatedly stabbed him. failurese of the great in assassination history. not only did he fail to kill undermined the strikers for whom he was professing sympathy. public opinion saw this outburst of radical violence as a discredit to the
8:30 pm
union movement. while some public opinion remained with the workers there was enough of a shift that there was political cover for us to move up one level of government. the governor of pennsylvania strikebreakers were brought by day and there would not be long-term unionization of the steelworkers until 1930. episode 3, two years later, illinois. the context is the depression. is that in 1894, a lot of labor frustration, almost 1400 strikes, a record-breaking 500-5000 workers out on strike that year -- 505
8:31 pm
,000 workers out on strike that year. pullman, illinois, is one of these company towns and we've talked about company towns. compared to the unheated shacks with little water supply that we have seen in the textile towns in new england, pullman was a relatively nice company town by all reports. standard,g was decent there were libraries and parks. he referred to his workers as his children. this ended up being a problem. they make pullman cars for trains.
8:32 pm
you work in this factory, you live in his town where he owns everything, you stop in his stores, you pay rent to mr. pullman. relatively decent standard of living. but then came the depression. mr. pullman decided he needed to help the company's bottom line and he called for a major wage cut, up to 30%. was going to remain the same. he is your boss, but he is also your landlord. how are you going to argue? the rent was already exorbitant because compared to similar rental properties in that region, he was charging about 20% more. not only is he not lowering the cost, he is also cutting their wages.
8:33 pm
he said this was for the good of the company. consider this. they paid $2.8 million worth of dividends. they were supposed to be losing money. problemere was a real and production was down, it is not as though the company was on the verge of collapse. the workers tried to negotiate. listened to what they have to say. he said, that is very interesting, you guys are fired. this is a did the workers and it led to a strike. a walkout beginning may 11. the workers were aligned with the national group and they had some support and sympathy of its
8:34 pm
president. the american railway union calls for secondary strikes. real word workers -- railway workers around the country refuse to switch any pullman cars into a train. it starts to get serious and by late june, train networks were being shut down around the country. they tried not to obstruct the mail because they did not want to run afoul of the federal government. management was quite smart and how they handled this. -- in how they handle this. if the train is not complete, we are not running it. then they went to the federal government and explained that
8:35 pm
the unionists were being obstructionists and the federal government started to take notice at the action going on. it had been local authorities. at homestead, it had been the state. in illinois, the governor is sympathetic to labor. this time, it was going to be federal intervention. the justice department went to court, they got an injunction against the strikers. the strike continued. debs was arrested for contempt of court. meanwhile, the president had to act because the strike continued. the president is still grover cleveland. we got to know him last time.
8:36 pm
the mail is being disrupted. management tells us it is the fault of the workers. george pullman is a friend of mine, by the way. don't forget cleveland is pro-business, pro-management. they get the injunction based on two matters. they are interrupting federal delivery of the mail. this is viewed by the courts and the justice department as an illegal conspiracy in restraint of trade. they are in violation of the sherman antitrust act and so the injunction is granted and the union does not back down and we have to send in the army. thousands of u.s. soldiers. the fighting took place, dozens were killed. the strike got broken up,
8:37 pm
obviously. the following january, the supreme court ruled that the government was right. thoseives great power to seeking injunctions from courts against labor in the future. in all of these cases, a lot of americans knew who was to blame. the workers, the radicals, but also groups we talked about a week ago. the outsiders, these newcomers, these immigrants. not just that we can blame the immigrants in the city for undermining american democracy. it is not just that we can blame the immigrants for challenging american religious traditions or challenging the cultural standards with their saloons and
8:38 pm
beer halls. but also, who is to blame for a crime and for anarchists and socialists, the answer is quite clear if you read this cartoon. the german socialist, the polish vagabond, the irish proper, and per, and sou forth and so on. conflated,g intertwined, and this was going to be very distant weaponry weaponry. wouldn in the meantime, i started out saying this was not all about theworkplace, not all about
8:39 pm
economy. some of the discontent in the gilded age was social in nature. , youyou work in a factory have no control. your work over what schedule looks like. they control your life. you do not set your schedule the way you did when you were a pleasant back in europe the way you did before you emigrated. you do not make your own schedule. you do not have any sense of craftsmanship. when you combine this with city, in a very large could be confined in a world of a few dozen blocks, and if that
8:40 pm
very dark, be a dirty, diseased world, frustrating, stifling world, you start to understand why people would grow discontented with this arrangement. there were certain solutions that were proposed. one response was a push for recreation. reformers in the gilded age that urbany believed dwellers would benefit immensely from access to playgrounds and parks and beaches, like the speech we see here being enjoyed by some -- like this beach we see here being enjoyed by some of the textile workers. the potential discontent of the cooped up urban dweller was the rise of recreation and urban
8:41 pm
parks. it had been going on for many decades. the most famous of the sparks, central park -- of those parks, .entral park in new york parks woulde follow. as the gilded age approached the 20th century, this push for outdoor breathing spaces would become even more the event -- vehement. we also need to make sure we are keeping everybody fit and active. active,are physically that will keep them out of trouble and if they are physically fit, that will help keep them -- that will help them avoid the saloon potentially. reformers thought all sorts of
8:42 pm
means of keeping the masses from getting bored and lethargic and of encouraging them to stay healthy. this, in turn, led to the increasing popularity of athletics. sports were a way to bring order to people, to organize people not only into community organizations, but also to keep them fit at the same time and to develop a sense of pride in your group, in your church, in your union. this is a transnational phenomenon. historians can tell you the same story about soccer clubs in britain and europe, cricket
8:43 pm
clubs and so forth. in our case, it is very important. this is a time when baseball starts to get organized and formalized in the years after the civil war. in basketball is invented 1891 at a ymca in springfield, massachusetts. we start to have college football. the first college football game took place in 1869 the 20 and and -- between princeton and rutgers. 6-4.rs won no helmets, plenty of unnecessary roughness, no notion
8:44 pm
of unnecessary roughness. the game came close to being banned a couple of times. carnage is the right word for it. the president held this commission, at least 45 deaths on college football field. in historian estimates that -- it has been estimated that college football please 18 deaths -- used .8 deaths -- produced 18 deaths it was not only the working
8:45 pm
classes who found modern society buanal. the upper classes, the intellectuals became increasingly disenchanted with their society. many of them suffered from an incredibly vague, but increasingly popular disorder. it consisted of anxiety, fatigue, depression, impotence, headache. the diagnosis depended heavily on who you were. if you were of the working .lasses, you were either lazy insane. if you were a woman, you are
8:46 pm
hysterical. "theead about this in yellow wallpaper." for a lot of female, the and symptoms might mean you are suffering from nerve weakness. a neurologist named george miller beard and he identified this order as a symptom of modern life. it was caused by this faster pace. caused by it was modern technology. technology was not natural, degrading us in our biology. his solution was a regimen of electrical shock. other physicians called for bed rest or isolation. to a lot of intellectuals, if
8:47 pm
this burnout is a symptom of ity, our solution is to embrace anti-modernism. they wanted something more than the superficial consumerism, the secularized drive for material gain. modern them rejected society in favor of any number of more basic alternatives. a return to the simple life, a return to craftsmanship, a return to medieval style a return tovotion, the practices of the far east. alternatives to
8:48 pm
their modern society. it gives you insight into their frustration with the society. for many of them, including the , self exertion was the tonic of choice. , his solutionvelt to all of this was the vigorous life, time spent in the great outdoors. in his very famous attempts to invigorate himself, theodore roosevelt would hike mountains, hunt big game, engage in cattle fellowg, encourage his men to procreate as much as possible.
8:49 pm
these concerns from the neurotic overwhelmedfused, intellectuals, they may seem trivial when compared to the labor strike any economic turmoil of the late 19th century. elites were just as interested in using central park and other perks for themselves as they were in creating the park as an outlet to prohibit -- prevent discontent among the lower sort. the point, in other words, is during the gilded age there was disenchantment coming from all directions. from those who needed a break, who fear the immoral
8:50 pm
or social implications of an increasing reckless working-class, from businesses who found themselves abused by monopolies, from states who found themselves powerless to stop monopolies, from workers who are finding themselves being crushed by monopolies and other companies as well, and from those near the top of the gilded age social hierarchy who found their society increasingly vacuous and unsatisfying. we are not done with the gilded age yet. we have been away from the south for some time now. next time, we will turn our gaze back to dixie and observe their
8:51 pm
peculiar version of the gilded age. have a wonderful weekend. turn your papers in. have a wonderful weekend. >> join us every saturday evening at 8:00 at midnight as we join students in college classrooms to your lectures on topics ranging from the american revolution to 9/11, lectures and history are available -- lectures on a history are also available as podcasts. visit our website. >> all weekend, american history tv is featuring san bernardino, california.
8:52 pm
is southernn california's highest peak. staff visited many sites showcasing the city's history. learn more about san bernardino all weekend here on american history tv. >> the first experience that mormons had with the southern was arnia area was there call for individuals to help with the mexican-american war that was occurring between 1846-1848. the mormon church raised a group of a few hundred men and sent them into southern california. they reached san diego and were stationed there and they ended up coming into the area, purchasing items from rancho owners.
8:53 pm
they first got a glimpse of the area. part of theals ofmon battalion spoke highly southern california and convinced the president of the church to purchase one of the ranchos in the area. that is how they ended up coming back as a group and they raised a few hundred individuals , one of make the travel back to southern california and settle in the area. originally, they were going to chino rancho, but that fell through. the journey from you talk to
8:54 pm
california was a perilous one -- from utah to california was a perilous one. many different types of terrain. when they got here to southern california, there was a path that was very difficult and once they reached that path, they realized there was a better route that had been taken previously. they ended up traveling through that route and discovering it was easier to maneuver down that way. it was not exactly easy, but it was easier than routes taken in the past. the wagon behind me was owned by a woman who lived in utah. her and her family decided to come to san bernardino in 1854. they made the travel here to southern california in this wagon behind me. it was a perilous journey.
8:55 pm
up getting here, more of their family started settling in san bernardino. >> the first thing the mormons land,en they purchase the they built a few houses. away, they heard about an indian uprising. the idea was because of the natives intrusion, the were not happy. , a mormons built a fort stockade, and that is where they lived. there were some skirmishes, but nothing that serious.
8:56 pm
eventually, after about a year, plans were made to layout the streets of san bernardino. once they started laying out the streets, 1853, the county of san bernardino was formed. jefferson hunt was most instrumental in spearheading the efforts to get everything built. hunt was the one who encouraged brigham young to have a colony in san bernardino. he was the leader of the mormon families coming out. he spearheaded the effort to build a fort. he also was instrumental in
8:57 pm
.uilding a logging road a 12were able to build about 10 days. the logs were used for frames in their adobe houses. in 1857, after six years, brigham young called his people back to salt lake. there were a variety of reasons why he did so. so many mormons came out for different reasons.
8:58 pm
weather -- it was short-lived. , theyrmons who stayed .ave their reasons -- a lotobably because of them stayed and they became prominent pioneers of san bernardino. if brigham young did not have the recall to salt lake, what would san bernardino be like now? , he is ao an historian
8:59 pm
member of the church of latter-day saints. his great-great grandfather was one of the two mormon apostles that came out with the family. ethic, the cohesiveness was strong. it would have been interesting, what would've happened. staff recently traveled to san bernardino, california, to learn about its rich history. learn more about san bernardino at other stops on our tour c-span.org/citiestour.
9:00 pm
you are watching american history tv on c-span 3. >> santa clara university professor discusses women rights activist belle la follette who was politically active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. nancy unger is the author of " belle la follette" which tells the story of this journalist, suffragist, and pacifist. the humanist association of the greater sacramento area hosted this event. it is about our. -- it is about an hour. speaker asked me if i could give her only a brief introduction. is belle la follette

9 Views

info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on